A Four Stage Method
Our company uses a four stage, problem-solving process, consistent with the behavioral consultation (BC) and Response-to-Intervention (RTI) models currently being used in school systems (Bergan, 1977; Bergan & Kratochwill, 1990; Erchul & Sheridan, 2008; Kratochwill, Clements, & Kalymon, 2007; Kratochwill et al., 2002; Sheridan & Kratochwill, 2007).
Within this empirically-based framework, the following four stages are utilized across a multi-tiered model of supports:
Indentify and define the problem
Current academic, behavioral, or disciplinary concerns for families, schools, and students are identified and defined in specific, operational or measurable terms using information obtained from key stakeholders and relevant data.
Analyze the Problem
Data are analyzed to identify current strengths and areas of concern. In relation, data are analyzed to identify “why” the problem is occurring. Information is also used to establish a current level (i.e., baseline or pre-intervention) level of performance to compare to expected outcomes. Benchmarks for success are identified and established with key stakeholders.
A tiered approach to intervention implementation is used that is consistent with the Response to Intervention (RTI) and School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS) models at the district, school, and student levels which is called a multi-tiered system of support (MTSS). Evidence-based and/or research-based strategies are implemented by key stakeholders. Direct consultation is provided to assist in intervention implementation.
Data-based conclusions are made regarding the effectiveness of the intervention. In addition, the compliance and integrity or fidelity with which intervention components are implemented by school personnel are evaluated. Direct consultation is used to provide feedback to families, schools, and students regarding progress.
The Plan for Service Delivery
We use a variety of methods within the four stage problem solving model including:
- Professional development and consultation regarding the implementation of tiered, research-based and/or evidence-based academic and/or behavioral interventions.
- Review and analysis of academic outcomes including district-level, school-level, or student-level performance on state department of education assessments, standardized assessments, or curriculum-based assessments.
- Review and analysis of district-level, school-level, or student-level discipline information from state, district, and school-level databases.
- Review and analysis of district-level, school-level, or student-level attendance information and trends.
- Completion of needs assessments by key stakeholders to assess district and school-level performance.
- Completion of standardized assessments and interviews at the student level to assess individual performance.
- Direct observation of academic or behavioral performance across educational settings.
- Completion of standardized protocols to assess compliance and fidelity of academic and behavioral procedures at the district, school, and student levels.