The Reading to Read (RTR)
intervention program is an educational/learning procedure that involves
daily academic engagement and adult guidance to improve oral reading fluency
and literal reading comprehension skills. With this in mind the primary
scope of service delivery offered by Fluency Plus involves (a) providing
initial and follow up training to identified staff members on the procedures
for effectively implementing the Reading to Read intervention program;
(b)identifying and assessing youth who may be at risk for reading failure;(c)
frequently monitoring and evaluating treatment compliance and integrity
in each participating building; and (d)evaluating educational outcomes
of all participants.
Instructional (Intervention) Passages
Instructional materials used
in the RTR intervention program consist of a series of 100-word reading
passages that are derived from the student’s reading curriculum and include a vocabulary building component.
Instructional passages are sequenced in equal intervals throughout the
district-adopted reading texts beginning with the first reader in grade
one. There are approximately 149 instructional passages for grades one
A series of 100-word curriculum-based
passages and the DIBELS systems are utilized as pretest and posttest
measures to evaluate student progress on grade level using the RTR intervention
All RTR training sessions
are conducted by trained employees of Fluency Plus. The training consists
of a lecture and video overview of RTR procedures including (a) instructional
level assessment (b) repeated reading procedures (c) mastery criteria
for intervention progression, (d) timing during intervention passages,
(e) immediate corrective feedback, (f) recording of student errors (g)
informing students of CWPM and student self-charting, (h)administration
of grade-level progress probes, (j) recording of student data, and (k)
issues related to treatment integrity and treatment compliance.
Mastery of RTR Procedures
During the training sessions,
each participant will observe several vignettes depicting complete RTR
intervention sessions. Each participant observes each video presentation
of RTR sessions and uses practice materials to record student performance
during each trial for Correct Words Per Minute (CWPM), Errors Per Minute
(EPM), and correct comprehension accuracy. After each video presentation,
all participants’ materials are checked for accuracy by the trainer.
Each participant is required to demonstrate 95 percent accuracy for
CWPM and EPM on three consecutive practice trials before being allowed
to conduct intervention sessions.
In addition to reviewing, modeling, and practicing RTR procedures with
a video presentation, participants are also paired with a peer to practice
implementing RTR procedures. Mastery assessments are conducted by the
trainer while observing each intervention session using a Treatment
Integrity Checklist specifically developed for the RTR. All participants
are required to meet a minimum level of 90 percent overall treatment
integrity before being allowed to begin intervention with students.
Critical Items and
Specific intervention procedures
relevant to treatment integrity have been identified as being critical
for each RTR session and require retraining in RTR procedures if not
demonstrated. These items included (a) accuracy in timing all reading
probes (e.g., 60 seconds) using a plus or minus three second window
(b) accuracy in marking and recording the student’s CWPM using
a plus or minus one error window, (c) administration of the grade level
passage, when appropriate. All other errors (e.g., failing to preview
instructional passage, informing student of CWPM, or instructing student
to complete self-monitoring chart) are reviewed without a retraining
Curriculum-Based Assessments (CBA)
Once a pool of potential
students are identified (e.g., teacher nomination, performance on state
assessments) as being at-risk for reading failure, CBA's using instructional
passages are conducted by employees of Fluency Plus. To determine each
student's beginning instructional level before intervention, the examiner
begins testing in a downward fashion by starting with the intervention
passage which corresponds to the student's classroom instructional level
(e.g., 6M1 = middle second-grade). The examiner then administers passages
in a descending order using passages derived from the middle third of
each reading book (e.g., 7M, 6M, 5M...) until an instructional level
of 90% word recognition is achieved. Once the instructional level mastery
criterion is achieved using middle passages, the examiner proceeds
testing upward until the student fails to meet the 90% word recognition
criteria. The highest instructional passage where the 90% or greater
word recognition accuracy is achieved represents the student's beginning
instructional level during intervention (See Fluency Plus for a list
of RTR passages derived from curriculum materials for grades 1, 2, and
Pre - Post Test Assessments
Prior to intervention all
participants are administered a 100-word passage pretest assessment
derived from the students reading curriculum and DIBELS. Similarly,
this passage also serves as a posttest evaluation after intervention.
In addition, the student will then be asked five literal comprehension
questions derived from the passage previously read. The examiner will
record the total CWPM and total percentage of comprehension accuracy
for each student. No feedback or correction is given during pretest/posttest
RTR sessions are typically
conducted daily by teacher assistants trained in RTR procedures. Each
intervention session consists of up to 10 one-minute reading trials.
Intervention beginning with the passage for each student that was previously
identified as his or her instructional level. Each passage will be read
repeatedly until a 97 or greater CWPM (i.e., no errors) and 80 percent
accuracy on comprehension questions are achieved. This CWPM criteria
is consistent with other research investigating normative expectations
for 100-word timed reading probes.
The passage designated as each student's assessed instructional level
is used to begin intervention sessions. All RTR sessions begin with
a listening/previewing session. This involves the teacher assistant
reading the 100-word passage aloud and modeling correct pronunciation
and fluency (Frederick, 1995; Tinstone et. al., 1995). Students are
instructed to follow along with the teacher assistant until the passage
has been completed. Next vocabulary words, indentified in each passage, and definitions are reviewed with the student. The teacher assistant then informs the student of
the mastery criterion and instructs the student to "Read the story
as quickly as you can. Do your best making as few errors as possible.
If you have trouble with a word, I will help you. You should then repeat
the word and continue reading until I tell you to stop."
As students read, the teacher assistant follows along on a separate
copy of the passage while timing the reading and marking any errors
made. During intervention passages, errors will be defined as any word
mispronounced or omitted. Any hesitation for more than 5 seconds results
in the examiner telling the student the correct pronunciation and encouraging
the student to continue reading. Further, multiple errors on the same
word are only be counted as a single error.
After each 60-second reading trial, the teacher assistant records the
student's CWPM. Each reading trial concludes with the teacher assistant
informing the student of his/her CWPM and the student recording his
or her progress on a chart. This procedure is employed in the RTR intervention
package to visually display and reinforce gradual improvements in performance.
In addition to self-charting of performance, students also receive verbal
praise and encouragement after the completion of each reading trial
and throughout the intervention.
Comprehension is addressed by asking the student to retell, in thier own words, the theme of the passage once they reach mastery or complete 10 trials. Following the retell, the student is asked a series of five literal comprehension questions based on the passages content.
In the event that mastery criteria is met before the intervention session
is completed, students will begin reading the next intervention passage
in the curriculum sequence. If mastery criteria is met on the last reading
passage of the RTR session, students begin the next highest passage
at the beginning of the next RTR session.
In an effort to monitor ongoing
progress at grade-level each participant will be assessed bimonthly
using a series of grade-level passages. Data is recorded for CWPM and
comprehension accuracy and records this information on a progress monitoring
As noted previously, as each
participant completes the RTR intervention program, he/she is administered
the same 100-word grade-level curriculum passage and DIBELS passage
used as a pretest evaluation. Gains in CWPM and comprehension accuracy
are used to evaluate student outcomes.
To obtain a measure of appropriate
treatment implementation and compliance, intervention sessions are evaluated
on a weekly basis using a Treatment Integrity Checklist and a Weekly
Report of Progress. The total percentage of observed treatment integrity
and compliance is monitored for each teacher assistant and reviewed
with the school principal on a regular basis. All treatment compliance
and integrity checks are conducted by trained employees of Fluency Plus.